Publications

Davies NG & Gardner A (preprint) Monogamy promotes worker sterility in insect societies. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/059154.

Best R, Ruxton GD & Gardner A (in press) Intragroup and intragenomic conflict over chemical defence against predators. Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1002/ece3.3926

Gardner A (in press) Group selection. Oxford Bibliographies in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press.

Faria GS, Varela SAM & Gardner A (2017) Sexual selection modulates genetic conflicts and patterns of genomic imprinting. Evolution 71, 526-540.

Gardner A (2017) Group selection. Reference Module in Life Sciences. Elsevier.

Gardner A (2017) The purpose of adaptation. Interface Focus 7, 20170005.

Gardner A & Úbeda F (2017) The meaning of intragenomic conflict. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, 1807-1815.

Lythgoe KA, Gardner A, Pybus OG & Grove J (2017) Short-sighted virus evolution and a germline hypothesis for chronic viral infections. Trends in Microbiology 25, 336-348.

Micheletti AJC, Ruxton GD & Gardner A (2017) Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B — Biological Sciences 20162699.

Davies NG, Ross L & Gardner A (2016) The ecology of sex explains patterns of helping in arthropod societies. Ecology Letters 19, 862-872.

Gardner A (2016) The strategic revolution. Cell 166, 1345-1348.

Gardner A, Griffin AS & West SA (2016) Theory of cooperation. eLS. John Wiley & Sons.

Inglis RF, Biernaskie JM, Gardner A & Kümmerli R (2016) Presence of a loner strain maintains cooperation and diversity in well-mixed bacterial communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B — Biological Sciences 283, 20152682.

Kapranas A, Hardy ICW, Tang X, Gardner A & Li B (2016) Sex ratios, virginity and local resource enhancement in a quasisocial parasitoid. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 159, 243-251.

Kiers ET, West SA, Wyatt GAK, Gardner A, Bücking H & Werner G (2016) Misconceptions on the application of biological market theory to the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature Plants 2, 16063.

Rautiala P & Gardner A (2016) Intragenomic conflict over soldier allocation in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 187, E106-E115.

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2016) The constant philopater hypothesis: a new life history invariant for dispersal evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29, 153-166.

Wyatt GAK, Kiers ET, Gardner A & West SA (2016) Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance. Nature Communications 7, 10322 doi: 10.1038/ncomms10322

Faria GS, Varela SAM & Gardner A (2015) Sex-biased dispersal, kin selection and the evolution of sexual conflict. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28, 1901-1910.

Farrell EJ, Úbeda F & Gardner A (2015) Intragenomic conflict over dispersal. American Naturalist 186, E61-E71.

Gardner A (2015) Group selection versus group adaptation. Nature 524, E3-E4.

Gardner A (2015) Hamilton’s rule. American Naturalist 186, ii-iii.

Gardner A (2015) Kin selection. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition. Elsevier, 26-31.

Gardner A (2015) More on the genetical theory of multilevel selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28, 1747-1751.

Gardner A (2015) The genetical theory of multilevel selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28, 305-319.

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2015) Simultaneous failure of two sex-allocation invariants: implications for sex-ratio variation within and between populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B — Biological Sciences 282, 20150570.

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2015) Mother and offspring in conflict: why not? PLoS Biology 13, e1002084.

West SA, Fisher RM, Gardner A & Kiers ET (2015) The major evolutionary transitions in individuality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, 10112-10119.

Alpedrinha J, Gardner A & West SA (2014) Haplodiploidy and the evolution of eusociality: worker revolution. American Naturalist 184, 303-317.

Davies NG & Gardner A (2014) Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27, 1012-1019.

Gardner A (2014) Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy. Ecology and Evolution 4, 1623-1628.

Gardner A (2014) Genomic imprinting and the units of adaptation. Heredity 113, 104-111.

Gardner A (2014) Life, the universe and everything. Biology and Philosophy 29, 207-215.

Gardner A (2014) Total reproductive value of juvenile females is twice that of juvenile males under X-linkage and haplodiploidy. Journal of Theoretical Biology 359, 236-237.

Gardner A & Ross L (2014) Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination. Ecology Letters 17, 1602–1612.

Gardner A & West SA (2014) Inclusive fitness: 50 years on. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – Biological Sciences 369, 20130356.

Schultner E, Gardner A, Karhunen M & Helanterä H (2014) Ant larvae as players in social conflict: relatedness and individual identity mediate cannibalism intensity. American Naturalist 184, 161-174.

Úbeda F, Ohtsuki H & Gardner A (2014) Ecology drives intragenomic conflict over menopause. Ecology Letters 17, 165-174.

Wyatt GAK, Kiers ET, Gardner A & West SA (2014) A biological market analysis of the plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis. Evolution 68, 2603-2618.

Alpedrinha J, West SA & Gardner A (2013) Haplodiploidy and the evolution of eusociality: worker reproduction. American Naturalist 182, 421-438.

Biernaskie JM, Gardner A & West SA (2013) Multi-coloured greenbeards, bacteriocin diversity, and the rock-paper-scissors game. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 2081-2094.

Gardner A (2013) Adaptation of individuals and groups. In: From groups to individuals (F Bouchard & P Huneman, eds), MIT Press.

Gardner A (2013) Darwinism, not mutationism, explains the design of organisms. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 111, 97-98.

Gardner A (2013) Group selection. Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition. Elsevier, 362-364.

Gardner A (2013) Ultimate explanations concern the adaptive rationale for organism design. Biology & Philosophy 28, 787-791.

Gardner A & Conlon J (2013) Cosmological natural selection and the purpose of the universe. Complexity 18, 48-56.

Gardner A & Ross L (2013) Haplodiploidy, sex-ratio adjustment, and eusociality. American Naturalist 181, E60-E67.

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2013) Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous groups. Evolution 67, 2284-2298.

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2013) Evolution of helping and harming in viscous populations when group size varies. American Naturalist 181, 609-622.

Ross L, Gardner A, Hardy N & West SA (2013) Ecology, not the genetics of sex determination, determines who helps in eusocial populations. Current Biology 23, 2383-2387.

Taylor TB, Rodrigues AMM, Gardner A & Buckling A (2013) The social evolution of dispersal with public goods cooperation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 2644-2653.

West SA & Gardner A (2013) Adaptation and inclusive fitness. Current Biology 23, R577-R584.

Wyatt GAK, West SA & Gardner A (2013) Can natural selection favour altruism between species? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 1854-1865.

El Mouden C, Burton-Chellew M, Gardner A & West SA (2012) What do humans maximise? In: Evolution and rationality: decisions, cooperation and strategic behaviour (S Okasha & K Binmore, eds). Cambridge University Press.

Gardner A (2012) Evolution of maternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25, 1479-1486.

Gardner A, Alpedrinha J & West SA (2012) Haplodiploidy and the evolution of eusociality: split sex ratios. American Naturalist 179, 240-256.

Pizzari T & Gardner A (2012) The sociobiology of sex: inclusive fitness consequences of inter-sexual interactions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B — Biological Sciences 367. 2314-2323.

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2012) Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous populations. Evolution 66, 2065-2079.

Scott-Philips T, Blythe R, Gardner A & West SA (2012) How do communication systems emerge? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 279, 1943-1949.

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2012) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: elders. Evolution 66, 1567-1581.

West SA, Winzer K, Gardner A & Diggle SP (2012) Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion. Trends in Microbiology 20, 586-594.

Yeh AY-C & Gardner A (2012) A general ploidy model for the evolution of helping in viscous populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 304, 297-303.

Abbot P et al (2011) Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature 471, E1-E4.

Biernaskie JM, West SA & Gardner A (2011) Are greenbeards intragenomic outlaws? Evolution 65, 2729-2742.

Gardner A (2011) Inclusive fitness. New Scientist 211 (2827), 30.

Gardner A (2011) Kin selection under blending inheritance. Journal of Theoretical Biology 284, 125-129.

Gardner A (2011) Tortured genius. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26, 109-110.

Gardner A & Ross L (2011) The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis. American Naturalist 178, 191-201.

Gardner A & Smiseth PT (2011) Evolution of parental care driven by mutual reinforcement of parental food provisioning and sibling competition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278, 196-203.

Gardner A & Welch JJ (2011) A formal theory of the selfish gene. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24, 1801-1813.

Gardner A, West SA & Wild G (2011) The genetical theory of kin selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24, 1020-1043.

Inglis RF, Roberts PG, Gardner A & Buckling A (2011) Spite and the scale of competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. American Naturalist 178, 276-285.

Ramiro RS, Alpedrinha J, Carter L, Gardner A & Reece SE (2011) Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites. PLoS Pathogens 7, e1001309.

Reece SE, Pollitt LC, Colegrave N & Gardner A (2011) The meaning of death: evolution and ecology of apoptosis in protozoan parasites. PLoS Pathogens 7, e1002320.

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2011) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: adults. Evolution 65, 462-475.

West SA, El Mouden C & Gardner A (2011) 16 common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior 32, 231-262.

Brockhurst MA, Habets MGJL, Libberton B, Buckling A & Gardner A (2010) Ecological drivers of the evolution of public-goods cooperation in bacteria. Ecology 91, 334-340.

El Mouden C, West SA & Gardner A (2010) The enforcement of cooperation by policing. Evolution 64, 2139-2152.

Gardner A (2010) Sex-biased dispersal of adults mediates the evolution of altruism among juveniles. Journal of Theoretical Biology 262, 339-345.

Gardner A (2010) Life without purpose. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 134-135.

Gardner A, Griffin AS, West SA (2010) Altruism and cooperation. In: Evolutionary behavioral ecology (DF Westneat & CW Fox, eds). Oxford University Press.

Gardner A & West SA (2010) Greenbeards. Evolution 64, 25-38.

Kümmerli R, van den Berg P, Griffin AS, West SA & Gardner A (2010) Repression of competition favours cooperation: experimental evidence from bacteria. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23, 699-706.

MacLean RC, Perron GG & Gardner A (2010) Diminishing returns from beneficial mutations and pervasive epistasis shape the fitness landscape for Rifampicin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genetics 186, 1345-1354.

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2010) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: juveniles. Evolution 64, 2587-2600.

Wenseleers T, Gardner A & Foster KR (2010) Social evolution theory: a review of methods and approaches. In: Social behaviour: genes, ecology and evolution (T Székely, J Komdeur & AJ Moore, eds). Cambridge University Press.

West SA & Gardner A (2010) Altruism, spite and greenbeards. Science 327, 1341-1344.

Wild G, Gardner A & West SA (2010) Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world — reply. Nature 463, E9-E10.

Collins S & Gardner A (2009) Integrating physiological, ecological and evolutionary change: a Price equation approach. Ecology Letters 12, 744-757.

Gardner A (2009) Adaptation as organism design. Biology Letters 5, 861-864.

Gardner A, Arce A & Alpedrinha J (2009) Budding dispersal and the sex ratio. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 1036-1045.

Gardner A & Grafen A (2009) Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 659-671.

Gardner A, Griffin AS & West SA (2009) Theory of cooperation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons.

Inglis RF, Gardner A, Cornelis P & Buckling A (2009) Spite and virulence in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106, 5703-5707.

Kümmerli R, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2009) Limited dispersal, budding dispersal and cooperation: an experimental study. Evolution 63, 939-949.

Ross-Gillespie A, Gardner A, Buckling A, West SA & Griffin AS (2009) Density dependence and cooperation: theory and a test with bacteria. Evolution 63, 2315-2325.

Wild G, Gardner A & West SA (2009) Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature 459, 983-986.

Belshaw R, Gardner A, Rambaut A & Pybus OG (2008) Pacing a small cage: mutation and RNA viruses. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, 188-193.

Brockhurst MA, Buckling A, Racey D & Gardner A (2008) Resource supply and the evolution of public-goods cooperation in bacteria. BMC Biology 6, 20.

Diggle SP, West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2008) Communication in bacteria. In: Communication among social organisms (P D’Ettorre & D Hughes, eds). Oxford University Press.

El Mouden C & Gardner A (2008) Nice natives and mean migrants: the evolution of dispersal-dependent social behaviour in viscous populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21, 1480-1491.

Gardner A (2008) The Price equation. Current Biology 18, R198-R202.

Gardner A & Foster KR (2008) The evolution and ecology of cooperation – history and concepts. In: Ecology of social evolution (J Korb & J Heinze, eds), pp 1-36. Springer. PDF

Gardner A & Kümmerli R (2008) Social evolution: this microbe will self destruct. Current Biology 18, R1021-R1023.

Reece SE, Drew DR & Gardner A (2008) Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature 453, 609-614.

West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2008) Kinship and social behaviour. In: Foundations of evolutionary psychology: ideas, issues and applications (C Crawford & D Krebs, eds).

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2008) Social semantics: how useful has group selection been? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21, 374-385.

Brockhurst MA, Buckling A & Gardner A (2007) Cooperation peaks at intermediate disturbance. Current Biology 17, 761-765.

Buckling A, Harrison F, Vos M, Brockhurst MA, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Siderophore-mediated cooperation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 62, 135-141.

Diggle SP, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: when is a signal not a signal? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – Biological Sciences 362, 1241-1249.

Gardner A, Hardy ICW, Taylor PD & West SA (2007) Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 169, 519-533.

Gardner A & West SA (2007) Social evolution: the decline and fall of genetic kin recognition. Current Biology 17, R810-R812.

Gardner A, West SA & Barton NH (2007) The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory. American Naturalist 169, 207-226.

Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Is bacterial persistence a social trait? PLoS ONE 2, e752.

Guinnee MA, Gardner A, Howard AE, West SA & Little TJ (2007) The causes and consequences of variation in offspring size: a case study using Daphnia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 577-587.

Ross-Gillespie A, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Frequency dependence and cooperation: theory and a test with bacteria. American Naturalist 170, 331-342.

Taylor PD, Wild G & Gardner A (2007) Direct fitness versus inclusive fitness: how shall we model kin selection? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 301-309.

West SA, Diggle SP, Buckling A, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2007) The social lives of microbes. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38, 53-77.

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2007) Evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Current Biology 17, R661-R672.

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2007) Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 415-432.

Gardner A & Kalinka AT (2006) Recombination and the evolution of mutational robustness. Journal of Theoretical Biology 241, 707-715.

Gardner A & West SA (2006) Spite. Current Biology 16, R662-R664.

Gardner A & West SA (2006) Demography, altruism, and the benefits of budding. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 1707-1716.

Taylor PD, Day T, Nagy D, Wild G, André J-B & Gardner A (2006) The evolutionary consequences of plasticity in host-pathogen interactions. Theoretical Population Biology 69, 323-331.

West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2006) Altruism. Current Biology 16, R482-R483.

West SA, Gardner A, Shuker DM, Reynolds T, Burton-Chellew M, Sykes EM, Guinnee MA & Griffin AS (2006) Cooperation and the scale of competition in humans. Current Biology 16, 1103-1106.

West SA, Griffin AS, Gardner A & Diggle SP (2006) Social evolution theory for microbes. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 597-607.

Gardner A, Allsop DJ, Charnov EL & West SA (2005) A dimensionless invariant for relative size at sex change: explanation and implications. American Naturalist 165, 551-566.

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Cooperation and punishment, especially in humans. American Naturalist 164, 753-764.

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Spite and the scale of competition. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17, 1195-1203.

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Spite among siblings. Science 305, 1413-1414.

Gardner A, West SA & Buckling A (2004) Bacteriocins, spite and virulence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271, 1529-1535.

Gardner A, Reece SE & West SA (2003) Even more extreme fertility insurance and the sex ratios of protozoan blood parasites. Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 515-521.

Gardner A & Zuidema W (2003) Is evolvability involved in the origin of modular variation? Evolution 57, 1448-1450.