Nature’s Second Inheritance System



Social learning: “learning that is influenced by observation of, or interaction with, another animal (typically a conspecific) or its products” (C. Heyes, 1994).

Tradition: “a distinctive behavior pattern shared by two or more individuals in a social unit, which persists over time and that new practitioners acquire in part through socially aided learning” (D. Fragaszy & S. Perry, 2003).

Culture: is defined by some as synonymous with tradition; others require additional criteria such as that cultures are constituted of multiple and/or diverse kinds of traditions, such as technology and social customs (A. Whiten & C. van Schaik 2007: see Whiten, 2005 and Laland and Galef, 2009, for further discussion).